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Relative clauses


Relative clauses

We can use relative clauses to join two English sentences, or to give more information about something:

  • I bought a new car. It is very fast.
    • I bought a new car that is very fast.
  • She lives in NewYork. She likes living in New York.
    • She lives in NewYork, which she likes most.

Relative clauses are starting with the relative pronouns:

who whom which that whose where when

(a) Who = that: (For subject ‘a person”)

  • Emad is my friend. He uses a computer well.
    • =Emad who (that) uses a computer well is my friend.
    • Emad, whois my friend, uses a computer well.
  • This is the boy. He broke the camera.
    • =This is the boy who (that) broke the camera.

(b) Who = whom = that: (For object ‘a person”)

  • Hala is my sister. You met her yesterday.
    • Halawhom (who – that) you met yesterday is my sister.
  • That’s the man. You are talking about.
    • =that’s the man whom / who / that you are talking about.
    • =that’s the man you are talking about.
    • =that’s the man about whom you are talking.

(c) Which = that: (For subject or object ‘ not a person”)

  • The car is so expensive. It is very fast.
    • =the car which (that) is very fast is so expensive.
  • “Oliver Twist” is an exciting story. I read it last week.
    • =Oliver Twist which (that) I read last week is an exciting story.
  • The book is useful. You read it.
    • =The book (which) you read is useful.

(d) Whose: (for possession)

  • My friend got high marks. Her father is a teacher.
    • =my friend whose father is a teacher got high marks.

(e) Where: (for places)

  • This is the house. We live in it now.
    • =this is the house where we live.

 (f) When: (for time)

  • The summer was long and hot. I graduated from university in the summer.
    • =the summer when I graduated from university was long and hot.


  1. The hospital which was built last year is wonderful.

= The hospital built last year, is wonderful.

  1. The man who is living next door is my friend.

= The man living next door is my friend.

  1. Ali, that is my friend, plays football well.  (wrong)

Ali, who is my friend, plays football well.  (Right)

This is the mobile for that I paid a lot of money.  (Wrong)

This is the mobile for which I paid a lot of money.  (Right)

 Modals of possibility and deduction

Modals of possibility and deduction (must – can’t –might)


 (a) Modals of deduction:

  1. Must + inf. (present).

We use (must + inf.) when we are sure about something is true:

  • He was running for 2 hours.  He mustbe tired.
  • They hadn’t eaten all day.  They must have been
  1. Must have + p.p. (past).
  1. Can’t + inf. (present).

We use (can’t + inf.) when we are sure something is not true:

  • He can’t be so ill, I see him playing football.
  • He looks tired today. He can’t have slept well last night.
  1. Can’t have + p.p. (past).

(b) Modals of possibility:

  1. Might + INF.  (Present).

We use (might+inf.) when we think something is possibly true but we’re not sure:

  • might go to the party tonight.
  • She might have taken the bus. I’m not sure how she got to work.
  1. Might have + p.p. (past).

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