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الان اصبحت مذاكرة  قواعد اللغة الانجليزية ( Grammar ) اسهل حيث وفرنا مجموعة من المراجعات النهائية لصفوف المرحلة الثانوية مقسمة علي عدة اجزاء كالنالي :

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Prepositions after nouns, verbs and adjectives:

There are no rules about which prepositions follow nouns, verbs and adjectives. you have to note down and learn each phrase as you come across it.

noun + preposition
an answer to حل لـ apology for اعتذار عن
a solution to حل لـ reason for سبب /دافع لــ
a reply to رد على cause of مسبب لــ
damage to دمار/تلف لـ the problem of مشكلة الـــ
increase in زيادة في the reform of إصلاح الـــ
decrease in نقص في a supply of إمداد من..
popularity of شعبية الـــ _____ _____

 

verb + preposition
apply for يتقدم بطلب (وظيفة مثلا) rely on/ count on يعتمد على
work for يعمل لدى / من اجل believe in يؤمن بــ
blame….for يلوم ..على succeed in ينجح في
look for يبحث عن take part in يشارك في
apologize for يعتذر عن فعل شئ result in يؤدي إلي /ينتج عنه
hope for يأمل في care about/ for يهتم بـ/ يعتني بــ
belong to ينتمي الي / يخص complain about يشكو من
apologize to يعتذر لشخص know about يعرف عن
complain to يشكو لشخص find out about يعرف عن/ يكتشف عن
manage to يفلح في / ينجح في learn about يتعلم عن
die of يموت من (مرض مثلا) prevent from يمنع من
accuse of يتهم بــ protect from يحمي من
dream of يحلم بــ recover from يشفي من
consist of يتكون من hear from يتلقى أخبارا من
hear of يسمع عن suffer from يعاني من
complain of يشكو من شيء سيء حدث له أو من مرض result from ينتج من/ عن
congratulate on يهنئ على escape from يهرب من
concentrate on يركز على run out of ينفذ
depend on يعتمد على rely on/ count on يعتمد على
__________ __________ believe in يؤمن بــ

 

adjective + preposition
astonished at مندهش لــ satisfied with راض /مقتنع بــ
brilliant  at رائع في angry with غاضب من شخص
good at جيد في annoyed with متضايق من شخص
clever at ماهر في pleased with مسرور من
bad at سيئ في delighted with مسرور من
terrible at فظيع في popular with معروف / محبوب لــ
angry about /at غاضب بشأن fed up (bored) with يصيبه الملل من
disappointed at خائب الأمل ashamed of خجلان من
famous for مشهور بــ confident of واثق من
sorry for آسف لفعل شيء full of مملوء بـ
good for مفيد لــ proud of فخور بــ
bad for سيئ لــ/ مؤذي لـ afraid of خائف من
responsible for مسئول عن frightened of خائف من
terrified of مرعوب من fond of مغرم بــ
scared of مرعوب من worried about قلق على
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Conditionals

Conditional sentences tell us a condition (if ….) and its consequence. We use conditional sentences to say one thing or action depends on another. They can be used also to talk about real or imaginary situations.

We can divide conditionals into four groups.

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  • Zero conditional:

if +present simple, present simple

  • We use this to state general truths and general habits.

– If water gets very hot, it turns into steam.

– If you drop a glass, it breaks into pieces.

  • (If) can usually be replaced by the word (when) without changing the meaning.

– The river floods when it rains cats and dogs.

 

 

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  • First conditional:

If+ present simple, will/may/can/should + Inf (Advice)

  • We use this for a condition which we believe is possible or likely in the future.
    • If she gets up late, she will miss the bus.
    • If it rains later, we won’t go out.
  • Sometimes we use this form: (if + present simple, imperative) to give instructions or advice.
    • If you feel tired, take a nap.
    • If she refuses to help you, don’t ask her again.
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  • Second conditional:

If past simple, would/ Might/ Could +inf

  • We use this for an imaginary condition, which we believe to be impossible or unlikely. We use the past tense although the speaker is thinking about the present or future.
    • if I had a visa, I would travel abroad.
    • If he were taller, he would join the basketball team.
  • With (I) we often use (were) instead of (was).
    • If I were you, I’d write him a letter.

 

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  • Third conditional:

If + past perfect, would/ Might / Could+ (have + p.p)

 

  • We use this to talk about things that didn’t happen in the past, or about past events which cannot be changed and the result is imaginary.
    • If I had slept for a long time, i wouldn’t have missed the train.
    • If she had won the prize, he would have travelled to Paris.  (she didn’t win the prize)
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Conditionals: unless– in case

  • unless

Unless means (if not)

  • My pen is lost. I can’t write unless you lend me yours.  (I can’t writeif you don’t lend me the pen)
  • in case

In case gives a reason while if describes a condition, it doesn’t mean the same.

  • I’ll buy a new house in case I get enough money. (I’ll buy a house because I may get enough money later.)
  • notes:
  • (provided/ providing (that)- on condition that- as long as) these expressions have a similar meaning to if or only if:
    • Provided that it doesn’t rain, I will go out at five o’clock.
    • You can borrow my book as long as you don’t have yours.
  • (without=but for + noun) these expressions are used in second and third conditionals:
    • Without (but for) my mother’s help, I wouldn’t have answered the questions. (If she hadn’t helped me….)
  • (Should → inf.) can be used instead of ifin first and second.
    • Should he have enough time, he will (would) go to the club.
  • (Were → to+ inf.) Can be used instead of if in second conditional, when it is not the main verb in the sentence.
    • If she won the medal, she would be happy. = Were she to win the medal, she would be happy.
  • (Were + subj.) Can be used instead of if in second conditional, when it is the main verb in the sentence.
    • If I were taller, I’d play basketball with you. = were I taller, I’d play basketball with you.
  • (Had) can be used instead of if in second and third conditionals, when it is the main verb in the sentence.
    • If he had enough money, he would go to the movies.    = had he enough money, he would go to the movies.
  • (Had) can be used instead of if in third conditionals instead of If.
    • If our team had played well, they would have won the match.
    • Had our team played well they would have won the match.
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1) Necessity             2) lack of necessity                 3) prohibition

Necessity

present past future
have to it’s necessary for ……..to + inf. had to It was necessaryfor ……..to + inf. will have to It will be necessaryfor ……..to + inf.
has to
must no past
have got to will need to
has got to needed to
need to / needs to
  • It is necessary for all of us to keep our environment clean.
  • We must / have to/ have got to/ need to keep our environment clean.
  • It was necessary for him to see a doctor.
  • He had to see a doctor.
  • It will be necessary for him to revise well before exams.
  • He will have to revise well before exams.

Must:

  • We use “must” to say that something is essential or necessary, to give orders or strong advice including to ourselves.
    • I must study

have to:

  • We use “have to” to talk about rules and regulations which don’t come from the speaker.
  • I have to arriveat school by 7 every day.
  • He has to weara uniform at his school.

need to:

  • We use “need to” to talk about what is necessary.
    • She needs to goto the dentist. she gets toothaches every day

Lack of necessity

present past future
don’t have to it isn’t necessaryfor ……to didn’t have toSomething wasn’t necessary, so we didn’t do it.needn’t have + p.pSomething wasn’t necessary, but we did it. It wasn’t necessaryfor ……to won’t have to It won’t be necessaryfor ……to
doesn’t have to didn’t need to won’t need to
needn’t/without (to)
don’t / doesn’t need to

It isn’t necessary for him to buy more groceries.

He doesn’t have to/ needn’t / doesn’t need to buy more groceries.

It wasn’t necessary for me to apply for a new job.

I didn’t have to apply for a new job.

I needn’t have applied for a new job.

Prohibition

It’s bannedforbiddenprohibitednot allowed to park here.

 

Parking is bannedforbiddenprohibitednot allowed here

You mustn’t (can’t) smoke here.

You aren’t allowed to smoke here.

You are forbidden from smoke here.

أنتظروا الجزء السابع من مراجعات قواعد الأنجليزية من بوابة الأضواء التعليمية..

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