الان اصبحت مذاكرة قواعد اللغة الانجليزية ( Grammar ) اسهل حيث وفرنا مجموعة من المراجعات النهائية لصفوف المرحلة الثانوية مقسمة علي عدة اجزاء كالنالي :
Prepositions after nouns, verbs and adjectives:
There are no rules about which prepositions follow nouns, verbs and adjectives. you have to note down and learn each phrase as you come across it.
|noun + preposition|
|an answer to||حل لـ||apology for||اعتذار عن|
|a solution to||حل لـ||reason for||سبب /دافع لــ|
|a reply to||رد على||cause of||مسبب لــ|
|damage to||دمار/تلف لـ||the problem of||مشكلة الـــ|
|increase in||زيادة في||the reform of||إصلاح الـــ|
|decrease in||نقص في||a supply of||إمداد من..|
|popularity of||شعبية الـــ||_____||_____|
|verb + preposition|
|apply for||يتقدم بطلب (وظيفة مثلا)||rely on/ count on||يعتمد على|
|work for||يعمل لدى / من اجل||believe in||يؤمن بــ|
|blame….for||يلوم ..على||succeed in||ينجح في|
|look for||يبحث عن||take part in||يشارك في|
|apologize for||يعتذر عن فعل شئ||result in||يؤدي إلي /ينتج عنه|
|hope for||يأمل في||care about/ for||يهتم بـ/ يعتني بــ|
|belong to||ينتمي الي / يخص||complain about||يشكو من|
|apologize to||يعتذر لشخص||know about||يعرف عن|
|complain to||يشكو لشخص||find out about||يعرف عن/ يكتشف عن|
|manage to||يفلح في / ينجح في||learn about||يتعلم عن|
|die of||يموت من (مرض مثلا)||prevent from||يمنع من|
|accuse of||يتهم بــ||protect from||يحمي من|
|dream of||يحلم بــ||recover from||يشفي من|
|consist of||يتكون من||hear from||يتلقى أخبارا من|
|hear of||يسمع عن||suffer from||يعاني من|
|complain of||يشكو من شيء سيء حدث له أو من مرض||result from||ينتج من/ عن|
|congratulate on||يهنئ على||escape from||يهرب من|
|concentrate on||يركز على||run out of||ينفذ|
|depend on||يعتمد على||rely on/ count on||يعتمد على|
|__________||__________||believe in||يؤمن بــ|
|adjective + preposition|
|astonished at||مندهش لــ||satisfied with||راض /مقتنع بــ|
|brilliant at||رائع في||angry with||غاضب من شخص|
|good at||جيد في||annoyed with||متضايق من شخص|
|clever at||ماهر في||pleased with||مسرور من|
|bad at||سيئ في||delighted with||مسرور من|
|terrible at||فظيع في||popular with||معروف / محبوب لــ|
|angry about /at||غاضب بشأن||fed up (bored) with||يصيبه الملل من|
|disappointed at||خائب الأمل||ashamed of||خجلان من|
|famous for||مشهور بــ||confident of||واثق من|
|sorry for||آسف لفعل شيء||full of||مملوء بـ|
|good for||مفيد لــ||proud of||فخور بــ|
|bad for||سيئ لــ/ مؤذي لـ||afraid of||خائف من|
|responsible for||مسئول عن||frightened of||خائف من|
|terrified of||مرعوب من||fond of||مغرم بــ|
|scared of||مرعوب من||worried about||قلق على|
Conditional sentences tell us a condition (if ….) and its consequence. We use conditional sentences to say one thing or action depends on another. They can be used also to talk about real or imaginary situations.
We can divide conditionals into four groups.
- Zero conditional:
if +present simple, present simple
- We use this to state general truths and general habits.
– If water gets very hot, it turns into steam.
– If you drop a glass, it breaks into pieces.
- (If) can usually be replaced by the word (when) without changing the meaning.
– The river floods when it rains cats and dogs.
- First conditional:
If+ present simple, will/may/can/should + Inf (Advice)
- We use this for a condition which we believe is possible or likely in the future.
- If she gets up late, she will miss the bus.
- If it rains later, we won’t go out.
- Sometimes we use this form: (if + present simple, imperative) to give instructions or advice.
- If you feel tired, take a nap.
- If she refuses to help you, don’t ask her again.
- Second conditional:
If past simple, would/ Might/ Could +inf
- We use this for an imaginary condition, which we believe to be impossible or unlikely. We use the past tense although the speaker is thinking about the present or future.
- if I had a visa, I would travel abroad.
- If he were taller, he would join the basketball team.
- With (I) we often use (were) instead of (was).
- If I were you, I’d write him a letter.
- Third conditional:
If + past perfect, would/ Might / Could+ (have + p.p)
- We use this to talk about things that didn’t happen in the past, or about past events which cannot be changed and the result is imaginary.
- If I had slept for a long time, i wouldn’t have missed the train.
- If she had won the prize, he would have travelled to Paris. (she didn’t win the prize)
Conditionals: unless– in case
Unless means (if not)
- My pen is lost. I can’t write unless you lend me yours. (I can’t writeif you don’t lend me the pen)
- in case
In case gives a reason while if describes a condition, it doesn’t mean the same.
- I’ll buy a new house in case I get enough money. (I’ll buy a house because I may get enough money later.)
- (provided/ providing (that)- on condition that- as long as) these expressions have a similar meaning to if or only if:
- Provided that it doesn’t rain, I will go out at five o’clock.
- You can borrow my book as long as you don’t have yours.
- (without=but for + noun) these expressions are used in second and third conditionals:
- Without (but for) my mother’s help, I wouldn’t have answered the questions. (If she hadn’t helped me….)
- (Should → inf.) can be used instead of ifin first and second.
- Should he have enough time, he will (would) go to the club.
- (Were → to+ inf.) Can be used instead of if in second conditional, when it is not the main verb in the sentence.
- If she won the medal, she would be happy. = Were she to win the medal, she would be happy.
- (Were + subj.) Can be used instead of if in second conditional, when it is the main verb in the sentence.
- If I were taller, I’d play basketball with you. = were I taller, I’d play basketball with you.
- (Had) can be used instead of if in second and third conditionals, when it is the main verb in the sentence.
- If he had enough money, he would go to the movies. = had he enough money, he would go to the movies.
- (Had) can be used instead of if in third conditionals instead of If.
- If our team had played well, they would have won the match.
- Had our team played well they would have won the match.
1) Necessity 2) lack of necessity 3) prohibition
|have to||it’s necessary for ……..to + inf.||had to||It was necessaryfor ……..to + inf.||will have to||It will be necessaryfor ……..to + inf.|
|have got to||will need to|
|has got to||needed to|
|need to / needs to|
- It is necessary for all of us to keep our environment clean.
- We must / have to/ have got to/ need to keep our environment clean.
- It was necessary for him to see a doctor.
- He had to see a doctor.
- It will be necessary for him to revise well before exams.
- He will have to revise well before exams.
- We use “must” to say that something is essential or necessary, to give orders or strong advice including to ourselves.
- I must study
- We use “have to” to talk about rules and regulations which don’t come from the speaker.
- I have to arriveat school by 7 every day.
- He has to weara uniform at his school.
- We use “need to” to talk about what is necessary.
- She needs to goto the dentist. she gets toothaches every day
Lack of necessity
|don’t have to||it isn’t necessaryfor ……to||didn’t have toSomething wasn’t necessary, so we didn’t do it.needn’t have + p.pSomething wasn’t necessary, but we did it.||It wasn’t necessaryfor ……to||won’t have to||It won’t be necessaryfor ……to|
|doesn’t have to||didn’t need to||won’t need to|
|don’t / doesn’t need to|
It isn’t necessary for him to buy more groceries.
He doesn’t have to/ needn’t / doesn’t need to buy more groceries.
It wasn’t necessary for me to apply for a new job.
I didn’t have to apply for a new job.
I needn’t have applied for a new job.
|It’s||bannedforbiddenprohibitednot allowed||to park here.|
|Parking is||bannedforbiddenprohibitednot allowed||here|
You mustn’t (can’t) smoke here.
You aren’t allowed to smoke here.
You are forbidden from smoke here.
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