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الان اصبحت مذاكرة  قواعد اللغة الانجليزية ( Grammar ) اسهل حيث وفرنا مجموعة من المراجعات النهائية لصفوف المرحلة الثانوية مقسمة علي عدة اجزاء كالنالي :

Reported speech  

 

 

Reported speech  

  • Direct speech:

He said, “I work in an office.”

  • Reported speech:

He said that he worked in an office.

(a) Statement:-

When you report what someone else said, you have to change:

  1. pronouns:
I he / she
we they
my his / her
mine his / hers
me him / her
us them
our their
ours theirs
  1. Tenses:
  • present simple:
    • ‘I’m happy.’
  • past simple:
    • He said (that) he was happy.
  • present continuous:
    • ‘The sun is shining.’
  • past continuous:
    • He said (that) the sun was shining.
  • past simple:
  • ‘There was a terrible storm.’
  • past perfect/ past simple:
    • He said (that) there’d (had) been a terrible storm.
    • He said (that) there was a terrible storm.
  • present perfect:
    • ‘I haven’t seen another boat.’
  • past perfect:
    • He said (that) he hadn’t seen another boat.
  • will/can/may:
    • ‘I’ll spend two hours in shopping.’
    • ‘I can see birds.’
    • ‘I may win.’
  • would / could / might:
    • He said (that) he would (he’d) spend two hours in shopping.
    • He said (that) he could see birds.
    • He said (that) he might win. `
  • must/have to/ has to:
    • ‘I must get my hair cut.’
  • had to:
    • He said (that) he had to get his hair cut.
  1. place, demonstratives and time expressions:
yesterday the day before / the previous day
tomorrow the next ( following) day
now then
today that day
tonight that night
ago / last before / the previous
next the following
here there
this that
these those

 

- Example:

  • ‘I saw him here yesterday.’
  • She explained that she had seen him there the day before.

- ! Notes:

  • She says, “I am reading a story now.”       =       she says that she is reading a story now.
  • Ali said to Hani, “the sun rises in the morning.”      =       Ali toldHani that the sun rises in the morning.
  • subj +offered to + inf.

    • He said, “Can I help you?”        =        he offered to help 
  • subj + suggest + v-ing.
  • subj + suggest + that + فاعل + should + inf.

    • He said, “What about playing football today?”    =  he suggested playing football that day.

  =   he suggested that we should play football that day.

(b) Yes / no questions:-

When we report a yes/no question, we use whether or if.

- Examples:

  • The teacher said to me, “Do youknow the answer?”    = the teacher asked me if / whether I knew the answer.
  • He said to me,” Canyou come to my birthday party?”   = he asked me if / whether I could come to his birthday party.
  • He said, “Didyou buy me the bike, dad?”                     = he asked his dad if he had bought him the bike.

 The passive voice (present and past)

                                                                

The passive voice (present and past)

Use the passive when the action is more important than the agent (who or what did it):

  • Obj (new subj) + v-to be (according to the sentence tense) + p.p

    • The Suez Canal was opened in 1869.
    • The thief was arrested before escaping.
  • if we mention the agent, we use it with by:

    • The train is used by all children in the village.
  • obj + v.to be + p.p.
  1. Obj + am – is – are + p.p.   Present simple

He always does the homework after school. =   The homework is always done after school.

  1. Obj + was – were + p.p.   Past simple

The government spent a lot of money on this project.     =     a lot of money was spent on this project.

 Important notes:

  1. Obj + modal verbs + be + p.p.
  • We can find a lot of information on the internet.    =    a lot of information can be found on the internet.
  • My mother used to clean the house when she was on holiday.
  1. (used to – need to – have to – has to – had to) + be + p.p.

=   The house used to be cleaned by my mother when she was on holiday.

  1. (don’t – doesn’t) + inf.
(active) (isn’t – aren’t) + p.p. (passive)
  1. (didn’t) + inf.
(active) (wasn’t – weren’t) + p.p. (passive)
  • She doesn’t clean the house as usual.  (active)=The house isn’t cleaned by her as usual.  (passive)
  • Ali didn’t complete the test.  (active)=      the test wasn’t completed by Ali.  (passive)

أنتظروا الجزء الثالث من مراجعات قواعد الأنجليزية من بوابة الأضواء التعليمية..

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مراجعة لأهم قواعد النحو للصف الثاني الثانوي (الجزء الأول)

مراجعة لأهم قواعد النحو للصف الثاني الثانوي (الجزء الثاني)